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What I currently use for privacy (after almost 2 years of long investing into it)

First of all, my threat model: I'm just an average person that wants to AVOID the maximum I can to be monitored and tracked by the government and big corps, a lot of people out there REALLY hate me and I've gone through lots of harassment and other stuff, I also plan to take my activism and love for freedom more seriously and to do stuff that could potentially lead me to very high danger or even put my life on the line. That being said, my main focus is on something that is privacy-friendly but also something with decent security (no point having a lot of privacy if a script kiddie can just break into it an boom, everything is gone) anonymity is also desirable but I'm pretty aware that true 100% anonymity is simply not possible and to achieve the maximum you can of it currently you'd have to give up A LOT of stuff in which I don't think I really could. So basically, everything that I said + I don't want to give up some hobbies of mine (as playing games etc)
Here's what I use/have done so far, most of it is based on privacytools.io list and research I've done.
Mobile:
Google Pixel 3a XL running GrapheneOS
Apps: Stock apps (Vanadium, Gallery, Clock, Contacts etc) + F-DROID, NewPipe, OsmAnd+, Joplin, Tutanota, K-9 Mail, Aegis Authenticator, KeePassDX, Syncthing, Signal, Librera PRO, Vinyl, Open Camera and Wireguard.
I also use BlahDNS as my private DNS.
Other smartphone stuff/habits: I use a Supershieldz Anti Spy Tempered Glass Screen Protector on my phone and I also have a Faraday Sleeve from Silent Pocket which my phone is on most of the times (I don't have smartphone addiction and would likely advice you to break free from smartphone addiction if you have it). I NEVER use bluetooth (thank god Pixel 3a have a headphone jack so yeah, no bluetooth earphones here) and always keep my Wi-Fi off if I'm not using it.
Computer:
I have a desktop that I built (specs: Asus B450M Gaming, AMD Ryzen 3 3300X, Radeon RX 580 8GB, 16GB DDR4 2666Mhz, 3TB HDD, 480GB SSD) that is dualbooted with QubesOS and Arch Linux.
Qubes is my main OS that I use as daily driver and for my tasks, I use Arch for gaming.
I've installed linux-hardened and its headers packages on my Arch + further kernel hardening using systctl and boot parameters, AppArmor as my MAC system and bubblewrap for sandboxing programs. I also spoof my MAC address and have restricted root access, I've also protected my GRUB with password (and use encrypted boot) and have enabled Microcode updates and have NTP and IPV6 disabled.
Also on Arch, I use iptables as a firewall denying all incoming traffic, and since it's my gaming PC, I don't game on the OS, instead, I use a KVM/QEMU Windows VM for gaming (search "How I Built The "Poor-Shamed" Computer" video to see what I'm talking about) I also use full disk encryption.
Software/Providers:
E-Mails: I use ProtonMail (Plus Account paid with bitcoin) and Tutanota (free account as they don't accept crypto payment yet, come on Tutanota, I've been waiting for it for 2 years already) since I have plus account on ProtonMail it allows me to use ProtonMail Bridge and use it on Claws Mail (desktop) and K-9 Mail (mobile) as for Tutanota I use both desktop and mobile app.
Some other e-mails habits of mine: I use e-mail aliases (ProtonMail plus account provides you with 5) and each alias is used for different tasks (as one for shopping, one for banking, one for accounts etc) and none of my e-mails have my real name on it or something that could be used to identify me. I also highly avoid using stuff that require e-mail/e-mail verification for usage (e-mail is such a pain in the ass tbh) I also make use of Spamgourmet for stuff like temporary e-mail (best service I found for this doing my research, dunno if it's really the best tho, heard that AnonAddy does kinda the same stuff but dunno, recommendations are welcomed)
Browsers/Search Engine: As mentioned, I use Vanadium (Graphene's stock browser) on mobile as it is the recommended browser by Graphene and the one with the best security for Android, for desktop I use a Hardened Firefox (pretty aware of Firefox's security not being that good, but it's the best browser for PC for me as Ungoogled Chromium is still not there in A LOT of things + inherent problems of Chrome as not being able to disable WebRTC unless you use an extension etc) with ghacks-user.js and uBlock Origin (hard mode), uMatrix (globally blocking first party scripts), HTTPS Everywhere (EASE Mode), Decentraleyes (set the recommended rules for both uBlock Origin and uMatrix) and Temporary Containers as addons. I also use Tor Browser (Safest Mode) on a Whonix VM on Qubes sometimes. DuckDuckGo is my to-go search engine and I use DNS over HTTPS on Firefox (BlahDNS as my provider once again)
browsing habits: I avoid JavaScript the maximum I can, if it's really needed, I just allow the scripts temporarely on uBlock Origin/uMatrix and after I'm done I just disable it. I also generally go with old.reddit.com instead of reddit.com (as JavaScript is not required to browse the old client), nitter.net for checking twitter stuff (although I rarely have something peaking my interest on Twitter) and I use invidious.snopyta.org as youtube front-end (I do however use YouTube sometimes if a video I wanna see can't be played on invidious or if I wanna watch a livestream) and html.duckduckgo.com instead of duckduckgo.com other than avoiding JavaScript most of my browsing habits are just common sense at this point I'd say, I also use privatebin (snopyta's instance) instead of pastebin. I also have multiple firefox profiles for different tasks (personal usage, shopping, banking etc)
VPN: I use Mullvad (guess you can mention it here since it's PTIO's recommended) paid with bitcoin and honestly best service available tbh. I use Mullvad's multihop implementation on Wireguard which I manually set myself as I had the time and patience to learn how.
password manager: KeePassXC on desktop and KeePassDX on my smartphone, my password database for my desktop is stored on a USB flash driver I encrypted with VeraCrypt.
some other software on desktop: LibreOffice (as a Microsoft Office substitute), GIMP (Photshop substitute), Vim (I use it for multiple purposes, mainly coding IDE and as a text editor), VLC (media player), Bisq (bitcoin exchange), Wasabi (bitcoin wallet), OBS (screen recording), Syncthing (file sync), qBitTorrent (torrent client) and Element (federated real-time communication software). I sadly couldn't find a good open-source substitute to Sony Vegas (tested many, but none was in the same level of Vegas imo, KDENLive is okay tho) so I just use it on a VM if I need it (Windows VM solely for the purpose of video editing, not the same one I use for gaming)
Other:
router: I have an Asus RT-AC68U with OpenWRT as its firmware. I also set a VPN on it.
cryptocurrency hardware wallet: I store all of my cryptocurrency (Bitcoin and Monero) on a Ledger Nano S, about 97% of my money is on crypto so a hardware wallet is a must for me.
I have lots of USB flash drivers that I use for Live ISOs and for encrypted backups. I also have a USB Data Blocker from PortaPow that I generally use if I need to charge my cellphone in public or in a hotel while on a trip (rare occasion tbh).
I have a Logitech C920e as webcam and a Blue Yeti microphone in which I never let them plugged, I only plug them if it's necessary and after I'm done I just unplug them.
I also have a Nintendo Switch Lite as a gaming console that I most of the times just use offline, I just connect to the internet if needed for a software update and then just turn the Wi-Fi off from it.
Other Habits/Things I've done:
payments: I simply AVOID using credit card, I try to always pay on cash (I live in a third-world country so thank god most of people here still depend on cash only) physically and online I try my best to either by using cryptocurrency or using gift cards/cash by mail if crypto isn't available. I usually buy crypto on Bisq as I just don't trust any KYC exchange (and neither should you) and since there aren't many people here in my area to do face to face bitcoin trade (and I'm skeptical of face to face tbh), I use the Wasabi Wallet (desktop) to coinjoin bitcoin before buying anything as this allows a bit more of privacy, I also coinjoin on Wasabi before sending my bitcoins to my hardware wallet. I also don't have a high consumerism drive so I'm not constantly wanting to buy everything that I see (which helps a lot on this criteria)
social media/accounts: as noted, aside from Signal and Element (which I don't even use that often) I just don't REALLY use any social media (tried Mastodon for a while but I was honestly felt it kinda desert there and most of its userbase from what I've seen were some people I'd just... rather don't hang with tbh) and, althoug not something necessary is something that I really advise people to as social media is literally a poison to your mind.
I also don't own any streaming service like Netflix/Amazon Prime/Spotify etc, I basically pirate series/movies/songs and that's it.
I've also deleted ALL my old accounts from social media (like Twitter etc) and old e-mails. ALL of my important and main accounts have 2FA enabled and are protected by a strong password (I use KeePass to generate a 35 character lenght password with numbers, capital letters, special symbols etc, each account uses a unique password) I also NEVER use my real name on any account and NEVER post any pictures of myself (I rarely take pictures of stuff if anything)
iot/smart devices: aside from my smartphone, I don't have any IOT/smart device as I honestly see no need for them (and most of them are WAY too expensive on third-world countries)
files: I constatly backup all of my files (each two weeks) on encrypted flash drivers, I also use BleachBit for temporary data cleaning and data/file shredding. I also use Syncthing as a substitute to stuff like Google Drive.
Future plans:
learn to self-host and self-host an e-mail/NextCloud (and maybe even a VPN)
find something like BurneHushed but FOSS (if you know any please let me know)
So, how is it? anything that I should do that I'm probably not doing?
submitted by StunningDistrust to privacytoolsIO [link] [comments]

What I currently use for privacy

So this is what software I currently use for privacy, would like some opinions if possible:
Starting with my cellphone, my device is a Google Pixel 3A XL with GrapheneOS flashed, I have the following apps installed:
F-Droid and AuroraOSS (as my app stores), NewPipe (youtube client), Vanadium (web browser), Tutanota and K-9 Mail (for e-mails), OsmAnd+ (for maps), Joplin (notes), Open Camera (camera), OpenBoard and Mozc for Android (Keyboard and Japanese Keyboard), Aegis Authenticator, KeePassDX (password manager), LibreTorrent (torrent client), Librera PRO (pdf/epub/mobi reader, I don't own a Kindle nor want to own one so I use my cellphone to read), Tachiyomi (manga reader), Signal (for messaging), Vinyl Music Player, VLC, Simple Gallery Pro and Simple Calendar Pro (I prefer them over stock Graphene options) and I also use Electrum and Samourai (Bitcoin Wallet) and Monerujo (Monero Wallet)
I also have OpenVPN (for VPN) and use a private DNS for ad and tracking blocking (provided by my VPN provider)
I have 3-4 PCs, will go over every single one of them:
my main PC is a desktop PC (that I built myself) that I mainly use for working and other tasks.
It runs Artix Linux (basically Arch Linux without systemd), I use UFW as my firewall (denying all incoming and also denying all outgoing only allowing what is useful) and I also use AppArmor Profiles, I disabled IPV6 and SWAP, configured my VPN connection as well on network settings and I currently run OpenVPN on my computer (my VPN provider allows for multi-hop cascade through OpenVPN in which I can create a custom VPN cascade up to four servers, each consecutive hop re-encrypts my traffic and assigns me a new IP address) and I've also set disk encryption on installation (have set in all of my computers)
As for software: I use Mozilla Firefox as my web browser (I set it to always be in private mode, unchecked suggestions for browsing history, bookmarks, and open tabs, I've also disabled the Firefox data collection in settings and block dangerous and deceptive content, I use DuckDuckGo as my search engine, I use Firefox Home as my default as my homepage. The rest of my tweaks were done in about:config (using privacytools.io site tweaks + geo.enabled = false, network.cookie.lifetimePolicy = 2 and dom.security.https_only_mode as true which are not listed on the site) and the only addons I use are uBlock Origin on Hard Mode and Decentraleyes), KeePassXC (password manager), VIM (use it as a Text Editor and as an IDE for coding), LibreOffice (for working stuff), GIMP (image editor), VLC, qBitTorrent and Tutanota's Desktop Client and Thunderbird (for e-mails)
I also use KVM/QEMU for virtual machines (usually in case I wanna test some distro or use Tails/Whonix)
For my gaming PC (also a desktop I've built myself) I run Manjaro KDE on it, the only apps I have in the system are Firefox (same settings as above), OBS and KVM/QEMU (which I use a Win10 virtual machine for games, there are tutorials on YouTube on how to do so if you're interested). I have the same firewall settings as above, using AppArmor as well and I've also disabled IPV6 and SWAP, I run OpenVPN on it as well as my VPN DNS settings on network settings. I also use different mouse and keyboard on both my PCs and never mix them together.
My other 2 PCs are both laptops, one is a Acer Aspire Nitro I've bought for work (in case I need to work while in a trip or if I wanna work outside etc), it has the same settings and programs as my main PC but I run Gentoo on it. The other laptop is an old ThinkPad that runs Slackware on it, but I rarely use it and this laptop is most of the times not with me for safety reasons.
For some other devices and stuff: I have an Asus RT-AC86U router with OpenWRT flashed on it that I also run OpenVPN config files (this one coming from another provider, I use two VPN providers, on in my PCs and the other in my router), I have a Ledger Nano S as a hardware wallet for both Bitcoin and Monero (most of my cryptocurrency is there, I use hardware wallet for hodling purposes and as my emergency funding) and I have LOTS of USB flash drivers (all of them for Linux Live ISOs purposes), I also have a Nintendo Switch Lite (only gaming console I have, although have not been playing that much on it recently) that I only connect to the internet in case I need to download some updates or play online and after I'm done I immediately disconnect it from the internet.
Some other privacy habits I have are:
I don't own any smart device like Smart TVs (I've been more than 10 years now without watching TV, doesn't even bother me), Smart Fridges or Dishwashers that connect to your internet, ROOMBAS, Smart Home etc, I keep all my money on crypto (and I have a small amount in gold as well, but I rarely invest on it, all my gold is stored in a manual safe here in my apartment) and I only have like, 10 bucks or so in my back account (as soon as I receive any money I just left the necessary in my account to pay bills and put all the rest on crypto, I try to pay everything on crypto or cash), I RARELY use cloud storage, but if I need to, I go with NextCloud and encrypt all my files with VeraCrypt before uploading it, all my VPN services were paid with Bitcoin (I try to pay everything with crypto as previously said) and I never write directly into any website, I usually write my text on a text editor, copy it and paste it on the website (needless to say that I don't use mainstream social media as well)
So, what do you guys think? anything that you would add your recommend me? (before anyone mentions about self-hosting a DNS server using Pi-hole on a Raspberry Pi, I'm actually thinking on doing it in a near future)
EDIT: forgot to mention that I don't watch YouTube on PC on youtube site, I mostly watch youtube's videos on invidio.us and only use the youtube site for watching live streams honestly. And I also barely go outside with my smartphone (only if I really need to) and I usually keep it away from my computers etc.
EDIT 2: also another thing: I covered all my laptop's webcams with black electrical tape, I have a Logitech C922 Pro webcam for my desktop PCs but rarely use it, and when I need to use it, I unplug it as soon as I'm done with it.
submitted by SlackAcademic to privacytoolsIO [link] [comments]

Hostinger Best Web Hosting Review

https://soundcloud.com/user-807100315/hostinger-best-web-hosting-review
Visit at- https://webhostingservice.home.blog/2019/06/02/hostinger-free/
There's no uncertainty that with regards to web hosting, Hostinger is just the least expensive choice accessible today, with costs beginning at $0.99 every month. No other organization figures out how to try and approach. A large portion of them offer a fundamental arrangement for multiple times the cost. Believing that it's unrealistic? It isn't. Yet, let me let you in on a little mystery at this moment. To get the best costs, you'll need to focus on Hostinger for quite a while.
This would be a keen activity – if the administration is really extraordinary. Since your guests couldn't think less about the amount you pay for hosting. They do think about quick stacking speeds, and about really having the option to arrive at your site when they have to. They additionally need to realize that their own information will be secure and ensured.
Could Hostinger offer that? I have my assessments; however I would not like to put together my audit with respect to my supposition alone. As Website Planet is accessible in various dialects, for some odd reason we have web hosting specialists dissipated everywhere on over the world. This was my brilliant chance to play out an enormous scope test, and I chose to do precisely that. We had 30 specialists join to Hostinger and dispatch a neighborhood form of our testing website in 30 distinct nations.
They messed with each accessible element, observed stacking velocities and execution, and even besieged client care with questions. They contrasted the outcomes and other mainstream has, as SiteGround and InterServer. This speedy response to every one of our inquiries is that Hostinger performed strikingly well. In certain nations, similar to Russia, it came in at #4. In others, similar to Israel, Hostinger grabbed the #1 place.
Peruse on for the long answer. I've point by point my full close to home involvement in Hostinger, and I'll disclose precisely how to take advantage of what the organization offers. To perceive how Hostinger looks at to different administrations, look at our rundown of the top web has.
Everything an Amateur Needs

With costs being as low as they may be, my restless character quickly recognized two zones where Hostinger may be attempting to pull one over on me: highlights and execution. Indeed, I'd love to pay half of what the contenders charge, yet I would prefer not to get just 50% of what they give. Fortunately, that wasn't the situation by any means, as Hostinger's arrangements incorporate all that I expected to get moving, from abundant assets to execution boosting apparatuses.

Three shared hosting plans are accessible – Single, Premium, and Business. Each of the three works on head of Hostinger's own special control board, cPanel, which incorporates simple auto establishments of WordPress and many other substances the executive’s frameworks (CMS).

I pursued the essential arrangement, which accompanied 10GB of plate space, 100GB of transfer speed, 1 email record, and backing for a solitary website. It's sufficient assets to construct an entirely good website – consider hundreds pages and a huge number of HD pictures. Certainly enough to grandstand your composition, innovativeness, items, administrations, or whatever you're anticipating hosting.

The two progressed plans accompany boundless data transmission, boundless email accounts, and boundless websites. Some additional advantages that you won't get with the Single arrangement incorporate SSH access for you Linux-sharp designers, boundless sub domains, and boundless information bases. Programmed every day reinforcements are the one basic component that the fundamental arrangement needs, which means you'll need to perform reinforcements physically or buy the administration as a different extra.

Hostinger has an intuitive website manufacturer by the name of Zyro, however it isn't accessible as a component of the hosting plans.

Before we dive further into Hostinger's best highlights, a word on the VPS and cloud plans. Hostinger is above all else a mutual hosting supplier. Try not to be that person who goes to the best pizza joint around and requests pasta. There are has that represent considerable authority in VPS and cloud administrations – Fluid Web and Kinsta, for instance – and keeping in mind that Hostinger's contributions in the field aren't the most exceedingly terrible, there's no motivation to go for them.
cPanel Has All the Fundamental Highlights, yet Does not have Some Serious Ones

As I said previously, Hostinger has built up its own exclusive control board, which means you won't get the chance to play with the dearest cPanel that you know and love. What's that? You don't create enthusiastic connections to hosting control boards? All things considered, you're the bizarre one. At any rate, while cPanel used to be the standard control board you'd get with most has (counting Hostinger), things change. Because of some exhausting venture show that happened some time back, has have been exchanging boards left and right.

cPanel is Hostinger's endeavor into the board world, and you'll see it furnished with all the treats you need. From simple auto establishments and DNS zones setups to email accounts, a record administrator, and MySQL information bases, it's all fundamentally the same as what cPanel offers. However, a few things are unique. For instance, auto establishments in cPanel are finished with Softaculous, which additionally lets you clone your site, set up an arranging variant, and even design a reinforcement plan. cPanel's Auto Installer works admirably at auto-introducing WordPress, yet does not have these valuable additional items.

Progressed email highlights, such as mailing records, channels, and routings, are additionally absent from cPanel. Did I ever really use them myself when they were accessible to me? Truly, never. I don't know who does. Yet, that is cPanel for you – it probably won't be equipped for everything, except it's certainly enough for most clients.
Amazing Reserving On account of the LiteSpeed Web Worker

LiteSpeed isn't the physical metal worker, however the web worker innovation that Hostinger employments. It reliably positions as one of the quickest and most dependable web workers, beating the more seasoned Apache innovation that hosts like GoDaddy despite everything use. You won't need to successfully arrange it. Simply kick back and appreciate the first class execution it conveys, particularly for WordPress websites.

What you can do, and assuredly ought to do, is initiate LiteSpeed's reserving capacity, known as LSCache. Sounds excessively specialized? Indeed, turning on the Programmed Store alternative basically summarizes it. Stored duplicates of your pages will be made, fundamentally slicing conveyance times to guests. Static pages, similar to business pages and portfolios, will profit by this significantly more.

A SSL Declaration that you could conceivably be getting

You need a SSL testament. Regardless of what you think and regardless of what anyone might've let you know – you need a SSL. Why? Since without a SSL authentication to scramble and secure your guests' information, the numerous wrongs prowling on the web will seek it. You'll not exclusively be taking a chance with your undertaking and your guests' wellbeing; however you'll additionally endure a shot on Google's rankings.

Today, Hostinger furnishes a SSL with the entirety of its arrangements. In the metaphorical yesterday, which for my situation was only two or three months back, no testament was given. What will happen tomorrow is impossible to say. Hostinger regularly messes with its arrangement highlights, and I propose that you triple-check and ensure that a SSL is to be sure included with your arrangement. Realize that if a SSL is excluded, it's conceivable to buy one as a different extra. In any case, that shouldn't be the situation. All that Is All around Structured, however you’ll be under Consistent Assault from up sell Pop-Ups.

Laying it out plainly, Hostinger's client experience specialists have designed an awesome interface and client venture, from information exchange to utilizing and dealing with your hosting. Thing is, Hostinger's business methodology depends on continually pushing you to overhaul and buy additional items. It's irritating, best case scenario, and confounding at the very least.

Yet at the same time, the plans are unmistakably spread out, and all Hostinger requests on information exchange is your name, an email address, and a secret word. Yahoo for getting rid of all the insignificant data that different hosts are so enthused about gathering.

Interfacing a Domain and Introducing WordPress

In the wake of buying my arrangement, the time had come to associate a domain and introduce WordPress. I was given the choice to consequently introduce WordPress as a major aspect of the information exchange measure, however I decided to do it the normal way, utilizing the control board itself, to check how Hostinger's apparatuses contrast with what different hosts give.

Presently, my domain was really included with the expectation of complimentary when I bought the Single arrangement, which means it was at that point associated with the hosting. Today, for reasons unknown, just the serious plans accompany a free domain.

In the event that you wind up getting your domain name from another supplier, interfacing it is simple. Nameserver data is promptly accessible at the head of your hosting subtleties page, and you should simply duplicate glue them into your domain board. Shouldn't something be said about WordPress? I opened the Auto Installer instrument, picked WordPress as my CMS of decision, and entered the essential website subtleties. It was much easier than how Softaculous gets things done, and my new website was ready for action inside one moment.
Dealing with Your Hosting with hPanel Is Simple

We've secured the way toward getting your website on the web, however starting here on you'll despite everything use cPanel to make alters and changes to your hosting. Setting up an email account, running manual reinforcements, dealing with the information bases, and the sky is the limit from there, are largely possible through cPanel. How can everything contrast with getting things done with cPanel? Indeed, as I would like to think, it's out and out simpler. hPanel symbols are greater and better sorted out, the interface isn't as jumbled with additional alternatives that you'll never utilize, and the combination with Hostinger's different administrations (uphold, buying additional items, seeing charging) is consistent.
All in all, would we be able to consider it an ideal usability experience? Actually no, not so much. The explanation, as I said previously, is that periodically your work process will be harmed by up sell pop-ups. Think rolling out a basic improvement to your DNS records, just to be welcomed with this:
I didn't "Increase present expectations." I didn't really do anything aside from sign in. Yet, Hostinger is enthusiastic about pushing plan redesigns, and you'll need to consistently be set up to close down these endeavors, of which there are many. Don't count on the possibility that these pop-ups imply that you've by one way or another spent your assets and need to redesign.
Pass on, It's the Quickest Common Hosting Administration We Tried

Speed and uptime that is what I'm searching for. Tragically, shared hosting administrations will in general vacillate in these regions, no doubt. The explanation is that as the name infers, you're offering assets to numerous different clients and their websites – in some cases up to many others. It takes an extraordinary host to adjust everything and stay away from a bottleneck circumstance where everything's moderate and no one's cheerful. I'm extremely glad to report that Hostinger exceeded expectations in the presentation tests, yet it really surpassed each other shared host that we tried, including the top-level SiteGround, FastComet, and InMotion Hosting. The main two has that improved, and just barely, were the superior Fluid Web (Nexcess) and Kinsta. Incidentally, they can cost around 20 fold the amount of as Hostinger.

Just to give you a thought of Hostinger's capacities, the normal stacking season of my completely fledged greeting page was an exceptional 1.56s, and uptime over a couple of long stretches of testing was as much as 99.99%, precisely as guaranteed. I'm going to nerd out and clarify the testing technique and the outcomes in detail, yet on the off chance that you needn't bother with all the specialized data, don't hesitate to avoid ahead to my encounters with Hostinger's help. I'll simply say it again – Hostinger's presentation shook.

As I do with all hosts I test, I stretched out Hostinger the chance to streamline my website and make it quicker. This is something you can (and should) do too – simply approach uphold for help. The operator prompted that I update WordPress and PHP to their most recent forms, and introduce a couple of regular enhancement modules. I actualized the exhortation, and continued with testing.

The testing itself was finished utilizing three apparatuses: GTmetrix Genius, the Sucuri Burden Time Analyzer, and Uptime Robot's Professional arrangement. The Dallas, TX, GTmetrix worker was utilized to quantify speed and advancement scores in the US. Sucuri was utilized for worldwide execution experiences, and Uptime Robot – who could have imagined – for following the website's uptime and accessibility online in rates.
GTmetrix

I ran various GTmetrix tests over a couple of months, totaled the outcomes, and determined the best, slowest, and normal paces. Hostinger indicated a promising normal stacking season of 1.56s. The best recorded time was 1.0s, and the slowest one was 1.9s. Not exclusively is the slowest stacking time well underneath the 3s imprint (where the majority of your guests will likely escape), however the normal scores demonstrate that Hostinger is as solid as anyone might imagine.

You can see that score-wise, we're getting twofold Bs. That is totally satisfactory, yet in addition probably the most noteworthy score I found in my tests. The main thing left to do so as to get full scores is to improve the pictures further.
Sucuri Burden Time Analyzer

As with GTmetrix, I ran Sucuri tests on numerous occasions. Sucuri gives you the stacking speed results for some worldwide areas, and I determined the midpoints of the quickest area (which was obviously in the US, near my server farm), the slowest area (Bangalore, India – the opposite side of the world), and the worldwide normal. The normal for the quickest area was an incredible 0.177s, while even in old fashioned Bangalore the normal was good – 1.11s. The worldwide normal was 0.499s, which earned my website an A worldwide position.

Frankly? I was shocked by these numbers. A worldwide normal of 0.499s is unfathomable for a common host, and everything I did to "streamline" my site was introduce a couple modules. There wasn't so much as a CDN (Content Conveyance System) dynamic. That is LiteSpeed and LSCache for you, women and respectable men. Get it while it's hot.
Uptime Robot

What great are quick speeds if your website has low accessibility? Nothing but bad. Fortunately, Hostinger is keeping it tight with practically immaculate uptime – 99.997% in the course of recent months. I'm proceeding to track and update the outcomes; however coming barely short of 100% is actually what I request from my host.

Uptime ensure shrewd, the circumstance is somewhat extraordinary. There's apparently a 99.99% uptime ensure gave, yet Hostinger has a genuine scrappy lawful clarification of when and how you can get your cash back. It generally seems like "never" to me, and regardless of whether you some way or another fit the bill for a cash back (as exclusively dictated by them), it's a measly 5% of your month to month cost. Goodness, and it's only for store credit. In any case, beside this assurance issue, Hostinger truly blows it out of the recreation center in the exhibition test.
When Extraordinary, Presently… Requires Tolerance

As a long-term client of Hostinger, I've had the delight of testing it over and over… and once more. One of my preferred pieces of the administration used to be the help. There wasn't (and still isn't) any telephone uphold accessible, yet stunning, was live talk a successful method of finding support. Day in and day out help, kept an eye on by experts, and supported by a broad information base of immense extents. The main issue? While the operators used to react in a flash, today they take around 40 minutes to hit you up. In some cases live talk isn't even accessible, and you're moved to some ticket/email framework which I've had next to no karma with.
I'll be totally fair with you about what this implies: it will be you and the information base. You can't rely on having an hour accessible to just stick around, and in any event, when the operators do reply, that is only the start of the cycle. With 3 brief reaction times in the middle of messages, posing some straightforward inquiries can expand into a whole workday.
The Least expensive Long haul Costs Available, by a wide margin

Truly, people, this is the explanation you understand this. While going over the many hosting choices accessible today, Hostinger's costs stick out. That is to say, $0.99 every month? That is excessively modest. What's the trick? Straightforward. Hostinger needs you to pursue a significant stretch of time, and it will give you motivating forces to do as such. Four installment periods are accessible: month to month, yearly, bi-yearly, and quadrennial. That final word implies four years, and it's scarcely utilized in light of the fact that practically no other host approaches you to pursue that long.

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One thing to see during the checkout cycle is that there are a couple of discretionary extra administrations. Fortunately, none of them come pre-checked. I suggest that you skip them all. You can generally include them later at a similar cost, or "convince" a help operator to give you a superior arrangement… dangers of leaving the administration can do something amazing here.
Searching for a free domain?

Now and again it's remembered for the plans; some of the time it isn't. The serious plans normally accompany one when pursuing a year or more. At the point when I joined, a domain was additionally remembered for the fundamental arrangement. Presently it isn't – go figure.
Concerning making installments, notwithstanding the normal charge card and PayPal choices, you'll additionally have the option to pay with bitcoin and different cryptographic forms of money. Whatever your reasons are for needing to have a website secretly, crypto is the best approach to do as such.
Hostinger's reasonable shared hosting plans merit your time, your cash, and your thought. Execution has been shockingly extraordinary, and keeping in mind that it's not the most element pressed contribution around, it has all that you truly need.
Would it be advisable for you to put it all on the line? In case you're constructing a blog, a business page, an individual task, or a comparative little to-medium website, my answer is a resonating yes.
In the event that it's a web based business store you're hoping to fabricate, or a mind boggling administration like an online course gateway, you'll need something more remarkable than shared hosting. It'll cost you, yet Fluid Web and Kinsta are both better prepared for such ventures.
submitted by frenchwillaume to u/frenchwillaume [link] [comments]

Running a Bitcoin node on a $11.99 SBC

Running a Bitcoin node on a $11.99 SBC
Just wanted to let you guys know that I'm successfully running a (pruned) Bitcoin node + TOR on a $11.99 single board computer (Rock Pi S).
The SBC contains a Rockchip RK3308 Quad A35 64bit processor, 512MB RAM, RJ45 Ethernet and USB2 port and I'm using a 64GB SDCard. It runs a version of Armbian (410MB free). There's a new version available that even gives you 480MB RAM, but I'm waiting for Bitcoin Core 0.19 before upgrading.
To speed things up I decided to run Bitcoin Core on a more powerful device to sync the whole blockchain to an external HDD. After that I made a copy and ran it in pruned mode to end up with the last 5GB of the blockchain. I copied the data to the SD card and ran it on the Rock Pi S. After verifying all blocks it runs very smoothly. Uptime at the moment is 15 days.
I guess you could run a full node as well if you put in a 512GB SDcard.
The Rock Pi S was sold out, but if anybody is interested, they started selling a new batch of Rock Pi S v1.2 from today.
Screenshot of resources being used
Bitcoin Core info
Around 1.5 GB is being transferred every day
---
Some links and a short How to for people that want to give it a try:
  1. This is the place where I bought the Rock Pi S.
  2. Here you find more information about Armbian on the Rock Pi S. Flash it to your SDCard. Follow these instructions.
  3. Disable ZRAM swap on Armbian. If you don't do this eventually Bitcoin Core will crash. nano /etc/default/armbian-zram-config ENABLED=false
  4. Enable SWAP on Armbian sudo fallocate -l 1G /swapfile sudo chmod 600 /swapfile sudo mkswap /swapfile sudo swapon /swapfile sudo swapon --show sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.bak echo '/swapfile none swap sw 0 0' | sudo tee -a /etc/fstab
  5. Set up UFW Firewall sudo ufw default deny incoming sudo ufw default allow outgoing sudo ufw allow ssh # we want to allow ssh connections or else we won’t be able to login. sudo ufw allow 8333 # port 8333 is used for bitcoin nodes sudo ufw allow 9051 # port 9051 is used for tor sudo ufw logging on sudo ufw enable sudo ufw status
  6. Add user Satoshi so you don't run the Bitcoin Core as root sudo adduser satoshi --home /home/satoshi --disabled-login sudo passwd satoshi # change passwd sudo usermod -aG sudo satoshi # add user to sudo group
  7. Download (ARM64 version) and install Bitcoin Core Daemon
  8. Download and install TOR (optional). I followed two guides. This one and this one.
  9. Create a bitcoin.conf config file in the .bitcoin directory. Mine looks like this: daemon=1 prune=5000 dbcache=300 maxmempool=250 onlynet=onion proxy=127.0.0.1:9050 bind=127.0.0.1 #Add seed nodes seednode=wxvp2d4rspn7tqyu.onion seednode=bk5ejfe56xakvtkk.onion seednode=bpdlwholl7rnkrkw.onion seednode=hhiv5pnxenvbf4am.onion seednode=4iuf2zac6aq3ndrb.onion seednode=nkf5e6b7pl4jfd4a.onion seednode=xqzfakpeuvrobvpj.onion seednode=tsyvzsqwa2kkf6b2.onion #And/or add some nodes addnode=gyn2vguc35viks2b.onion addnode=kvd44sw7skb5folw.onion addnode=nkf5e6b7pl4jfd4a.onion addnode=yu7sezmixhmyljn4.onion addnode=3ffk7iumtx3cegbi.onion addnode=3nmbbakinewlgdln.onion addnode=4j77gihpokxu2kj4.onion addnode=5at7sq5nm76xijkd.onion addnode=77mx2jsxaoyesz2p.onion addnode=7g7j54btiaxhtsiy.onion ddnode=a6obdgzn67l7exu3.onion
  10. Start Bitcoin Daemon with the command bitcoind -listenonion
Please note that I'm not a professional. So if anything above is not 100% correct, let me know and I will change it, but this is my setup at the moment.
submitted by haste18 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Scared to use my computer. Feeling crazy. Please help.

Is it possible for someone to use your computer to mine bitcoins without your knowledge? Or allocate your resources elsewhere remotely for profit? Also, is it possible for someone to disguise a virtual environment?
Some context, my husband is going nuts because after a year of uninstalling/reinstalling, flashing BIOS and disabling services he still can't explain why his computers resources aren't all available to him. Also, occasionally there are 2 boot devices and a different boot logo. Weird stuff in his BIOS, etc.
I need to find an expert who can either confirm his suspicion or tell him he's obsessing over things that aren't there. I don't know where to turn. I can't afford a PI and I have no proof any of this is happening. I'm scared for his mental health.
For reference, here are some things he's found:
Here's what we've noticed: 1. Our computers speakers will start buzzing or cracking at the same time. Computers are off and not connected together. At one point shortly before this started, we noticed one computer's sound was messed up and the headphones speakers were configured as a mic. This suddenly fixed itself. 2. Random network traffic that is not shown on the Task Manager view of the Ethernet connector. It seems to happen only if League of Legends is open. The RM shows a spike but the TM shows nothing. 3. We noticed that one computers internal SATA ports were configured as external SATA ports. 4. Strange things in the BIOS that weren't there before like a Windows ToGo device, a Linux device, even after flashing the BIOS. It seems like it posts twice. TPM settings popped up after re-flashing. 5. Lots of Bluetooth services with seemingly random letters and numbers after them that we can't change settings for or disable. We don't have Bluetooth devices on our computers. 6. NFC and Payment service on a PC? 7. strange hash files and GPU cache 8. Hyper-V services we didn't install 9. Running traceroute to anywhere, the first hop is always "*" 10. Network boot settings we can't change. 11. Routers Firewall blocking weird packets and weird firewall settings we haven't added in windows firewall. 12. Unspecified TCP connections and loopbacks in the resource monitor.
I'm well aware of how crazy it sounds, but I'm absolutely desperate.
submitted by RobotAnxietyAttack to computerhelp [link] [comments]

Am I Operating on a Virtual Machine? Would that even be possible for someone to set up without my knowledge? Am I Crazy?

Long story short, I am friends with a programmer. He has had access to 2 of our computer's, and we've even done some minor work for him before to help him with a large project. He's a MS Enterprise user and I'm pretty sure he uses Azure in his business. He even helped us by using his card to buy us a Windows key when all we had was cash.
We've started to notice weird stuff like BIOS boot devices that appeared and disappeared shortly after we discovered them (Windows ToGo & a Linux device) & seems to post twice when booting. Suddenly we have unaccounted for differences in network traffic between the Resource Manager (logs a 1000kb+ spike) & the Task Manager(doesn't log this 1000kb+ spike). "Mouse Intercept" files in game folders. We can't make changes or disable some services we would be able to change before. Internal SATA configured as external SATA. NFC & Payments services, Hyper V & Azure services we didn't install. Unspecified TCP connections and loopbacks, & when we run traceroute the first hop is always " * ".
Today we tried to reinstall Windows again (we've done this fresh and re-flashed the BIOS many times) and it said there was only 16mb of space left on a 300GB hard drive even though we only had League of Legends and a browser installed.
TL;DR Is it possible that our friend has us thinking we have control, but we're really using virtual machines while he allocated our resources to himself for some reason (Bitcoin mining? Maybe?). Have we been hacked? Can we hack our way out? It's been a year of research and we've turned up nothing useful. I feel crazy.
submitted by RobotAnxietyAttack to HowToHack [link] [comments]

IoT Testing !!!

IoT is a whole ecosystem that contains intelligent devices equipped with sensors (sensors) that provide remote control, storage, transmission and security of data. The Internet of Things (IoT) is an innovative solution in various areas such as healthcare, insurance, labor protection, logistics, ecology, etc. To unleash the full potential of using IoT devices, it is necessary to solve many problems related to standards, security, architecture, ecosystem construction, channels and device connection protocols. Today in the world, large organizations such as NIST, IEEE, ISO / IEC, and others make enormous efforts in addressing the issues of standardization, security, and the architecture of developed devices. Analysis of recent scientific research in the field of solving information security issues and data privacy of IoT devices showed positive results, but these methods and approaches are based on traditional methods of network security. The development and application of security mechanisms for IoT devices is a complex and heterogeneous task. In this regard, ensuring information security and the protection of sensitive data, as well as the availability of IoT devices, is the main purpose of writing this article. Given the above, many questions arise related to the security status of IoT devices, namely: What are the current standards and protocols for IoT? What are the requirements for ensuring information security of IoT devices? What security mechanisms do IoT devices have? What methods of testing IoT devices exist? Manufacturers and developers of IoT devices do not pay enough attention to security issues. With the development of cyber-attacks, attack vectors are becoming more sophisticated and aimed at several infrastructure elements at the same time. IoT infrastructure typically includes millions of connected objects and devices that store and share confidential information. Scenarios of theft and fraud, such as hacking and falsifying personal data, pose a serious threat to such IoT devices. Most IoT devices use the public Internet to exchange data, which makes them vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Modern approaches to information security often offer solutions to individual problems, when multi-level approaches offer increased resistance to cyber-attacks.
Challenges of testing IoT devices
To a request to name essential items, many would answer: food, a roof over your head, clothes … With one caveat: this was the case in the last century.
Since then, the species Homo Sapiens has accumulated needs. We need automatic sensors to control the lighting, not just switches, for smart systems to monitor health and car traffic. The list goes on … In general, we can make life easier and better.
Let’s try to figure out how all this Internet of things works before moving on to testing.
IoT testing
Content
What is the Internet of Things (IoT)? Examples of IoT devices # 1) Wearable technology: # 2) Infrastructure and development # 3) Health Technologies that are present in IoT IoT Testing # 1) Usability: # 2) IoT Security: # 3) Network features: # 4) Efficiency: # 5) Compatibility testing: # 6) Pilot testing: # 7) Check for compliance: # 8) Testing updates: IoT testing challenges # 1) Hard / soft # 2) Device Interaction Model # 3) Testing data coming in real time # 4) UI # 5) Network Availability IoT Testing Tools # 1) Software: # 2) Hard: Total What is the Internet of Things (IoT)? The Internet of things (or IoT) is a network that combines many objects: vehicles, home automation, medical equipment, microchips, etc. All these constituent elements accumulate and transmit data. Through this technology, the user controls the devices remotely.

Examples of IoT devices

# 1) Wearable technology: Fitbit Fitness Bracelets and Apple Watch smart watches sync seamlessly with other mobile devices.

IoT – watches and bracelets

Itís easier to collect health information: heart rate, body activity during sleep, etc.
# 2) Infrastructure and development The CitySense app analyzes lighting data online and turns lights on and off automatically. There are applications that control traffic lights or report on the availability of parking lots.
# 3) Health Some health monitoring systems are used in hospitals. The basis of their work is indicative data. These services control the dosage of drugs at different times of the day. For example, the UroSense application monitors the level of fluid in the body and, if necessary, increases this level. And doctors will learn about patient information wirelessly.
Technologies that are present in IoT RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), EPC (Electronic Product Code) NFC (ìNear Field Communicationî) provides two-way communication between devices. This technology is present in smartphones and is used for contactless transactions.
Bluetooth It is widely used in situations where near-field communication is sufficient. Most often present in wearable devices. Z-Wave. Low frequency RF technology. Most often used for home automation, lighting control, etc. WiFi. The most popular network for IoT (file, data and message transfer). IoT Testing Consider an example : a medical system that monitors health status, heart rate, fluid content, and sends reports to healthcare providers. Data is displayed in the system; archives available. And doctors are already deciding whether to take medication for the patient remotely.
IoT architecture
There are several approaches for testing the IoT architecture.
# 1) Usability: It is necessary to provide usability testing of each device. A medical device that monitors your health should be portable.
Sufficiently thought out equipment is needed that would send not only notifications, but also error messages, warnings, etc. The system must have an option that captures events, so that the end user understands. If this is not possible, event information is stored in the database. The ability to process data and exchange tasks between devices is carefully checked. # 2) IoT Security: Data is at the heart of all connected devices. Therefore, unauthorized access during data transfer is not ruled out. From the point of view of software testing, it is necessary to check how secure / encrypted the data is. If there is a UI, you need to check if it is password protected. # 3) Network features: Network connectivity and IoT functionality are critical. After all, we are talking about a system that is used for health purposes. Two main aspects are tested: The presence of a network , the possibility of data transfer (whether jobs are transferred from one device to another without any hitch). The scenario when there is no connection . Regardless of the level of reliability of the system, it is likely that the status of the system will be ìofflineî. If the network is unavailable, employees of the hospital or other organization need to know about it (notifications). Thus, they will be able to monitor the condition of the patient themselves, and not wait for the system to work. On the other hand, in such systems there is usually a mechanism that saves data if the system is offline. That is, data loss is eliminated. # 4) Efficiency: It is necessary to take into account the extent to which the healthcare solution is applicable in specific conditions. In testing, from 2 to 10 patients participate, data is transmitted to 10-20 devices. If the entire hospital is connected to the network, this is already 180-200 patients. That is, there will be more actual data than test data. In addition, it is necessary to test the utility for monitoring the system: current load, power consumption, temperature, etc. # 5) Compatibility testing: This item is always present in the plan for testing the IoT system. The compatibility of different versions of operating systems, browser types and their respective versions, devices of different generations, communication modes [for example, Bluetooth 2.0, 3.0] is extremely important for IoT. # 6) Pilot testing: Pilot testing is a mandatory point of the test plan. Only tests in the laboratory will allow us to conclude that the system is functional. In pilot testing, the number of users is limited. They make manipulations with the application and express their opinion. These comments turn out to be very helpful, they make a reliable application. # 7) Check for compliance: The system, which monitors the state of health, undergoes many compliance checks. It also happens that a software product passes all stages of testing, but fails the final test for compliance [testing is carried out by the regulatory body]. It is more advisable to check for compliance with norms and standards before starting the development cycle. # 8) Testing updates: IoT is a combination of many protocols, devices, operating systems, firmware, hardware, network layers, etc. When an update occurs – be it a system or something else of the above – rigorous regression testing is required. The overall strategy is being amended to avoid the difficulties associated with the upgrade.

IoT testing challengesIoT testing

# 1) Hard / soft IoT is an architecture in which software and hardware components are closely intertwined. Not only software is important, but also hard: sensors, gateways, etc.
Functional testing alone will not be enough to certify the system. All components are interdependent. IoT is much more complicated than simpler systems [only software or only hard].
# 2) Device Interaction Model Components of the network must interact in real time or close to real. All this becomes a single whole – hence the additional difficulties associated with IoT (security, backward compatibility and updates).
# 3) Testing data coming in real time Obtaining this data is extremely difficult. The matter is complicated by the fact that the system, as in the described case, may relate to the health sector.
# 4) UI An IoT network usually consists of different devices that are controlled by different platforms [iOS, Android, Windows, linux]. Testing is possible only on some devices, since testing on all possible devices is almost impossible.
# 5) Network Availability Network connectivity plays an important role in IoT. The data rate is increasing. IoT architecture should be tested under various connection conditions, at different speeds. Virtual network emulators in most cases are used to diversify network load, connectivity, stability, and other elements of load testing . But the evidence is always new scenarios, and the testing team does not know where the difficulties will arise in the future.

IoT Testing ToolsIoT and software

There are many tools that are used in testing IoT systems.
They are classified depending on the purpose:
# 1) Software: Wireshark : An open source tool. Used to monitor traffic in the interface, source / given host address, etc. Tcpdump : This tool does a similar job. The utility does not have a GUI, its interface is the command line. It enables the user to flash TCP / IP and other packets that are transmitted over the network. # 2) Hard: JTAG Dongle: A tool similar to debuggers in PC applications. Allows you to find defects in the code of the target platform and shows the changes step by step. Digital Storage Oscilloscope : checks various events using time stamps, power outages, signal integrity. Software Defined Radio : emulates a transmitter and receiver for various wireless gateways. IoT is an emerging market and many opportunities. In the foreseeable future, the Internet of things will become one of the main areas of work for tester teams. Network devices, smart gadget applications, communication modules – all this plays an important role in the study and evaluation of various services.
Total The approach to testing IoT may vary depending on the specific system / architecture.
Itís difficult to test IoT, but at the same time itís an interesting job, since testers have a good place to swing – there are many devices, protocols and operating systems.
PS You should try out the TAAS format (“tests from the user’s point of view”), and not just fulfill the formal requirements.
—————
Smart watches, baby-sitters, wireless gadgets and devices such as, for example, a portable radio station have long been part of everyday life.
Hackers have already proven that many of these attacks on IoT are possible.
Many people in general first learned about IoT security threats when they heard about the Mirai botnet in September 2016.
According to some estimates, Mirai infected about 2.5 million IoT devices, including printers, routers and cameras connected to the Internet.
The botnetís creators used it to launch distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, including an attack on the KrebsonSecurity cybersecurity blog.
In fact, the attackers used all devices infected with Mirai to try to connect to the target site at the same time, in the hope of suppressing the servers and preventing access to the site.
Since Mirai was first published on the news, attackers launched other botnet attacks on IoT, including Reaper and Hajime.
Experts say that such attacks are most likely in the future.
The Internet of Things (IoT) can bring many advantages to modern life, but it also has one huge drawback: security threats.
In its 2018 IOT forecasts, Forroter Research notes: ìSecurity threats are a major concern for companies deploying IoT solutions – in fact, this is the main task of organizations looking to deploy IoT solutions.
However, most firms do not regularly prevent IoT-specific security threats, and business pressure suppresses technical security issues. î
IoT security risks can be even more significant on the consumer side, where people are often unaware of potential threats and what they should do to avoid threats.
A 2017 IoT security survey sponsored by Gemalto Security Provider found that only 14 percent of consumers surveyed consider themselves IoT-aware.
This number is particularly noteworthy because 54 percent of the respondents owned an average of four IoT devices.
And these IoT security threats are not just theoretical.
Hackers and cybercriminals have already found ways to compromise many IoT devices and networks, and experts say that successful attacks are likely to increase.
Forrester predicted: “In 2018, we will see more attacks related to IoT … except that they will increase in scale and loss.”
What types of IoT security threats will enterprises and consumers face in 2018?
Based on historical precedent, here are ten of the most likely types of attacks.
  1. Botnets and DDoS attacks
  2. Remote recording The possibility that attackers can hack IoT devices and record owners without their knowledge is not revealed as a result of the work of hackers, but as a result of the work of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Documents released by WikiLeaks implied that the spy agency knew about dozens of zero-day exploits for IoT devices, but did not disclose errors, because they hoped to use vulnerabilities to secretly record conversations that would reveal the actions of alleged opponents of America.
Documents pointed to vulnerabilities in smart TVs, as well as on Android and iOS smartphones.
The obvious consequence is that criminals can also exploit these vulnerabilities for their vile purposes.
  1. Spam In January 2014, one of the first known attacks using IoT devices used more than 100,000 Internet-connected devices, including televisions, routers, and at least one smart refrigerator to send 300,000 spam emails per day.
The attackers sent no more than 10 messages from each device, which makes it very difficult to block or determine the location of the incident.
This first attack was not far from the last.
IoT spam attacks continued in the fall with the Linux.ProxyM IoT botnet.
  1. APTs In recent years, advanced persistent threats (APTs) have become a serious concern for security professionals.
APTs are carried out by funded and widespread attackers such as nation states or corporations that launch complex cyberattacks that are difficult to prevent or mitigate.
For example, the Stuxnet worm, which destroyed Iranian nuclear centrifuges and hacking Sony Pictures 2014, was attributed to nation states.
Because the critical infrastructure is connected to the Internet, many experts warn that APTs may launch a power-oriented IoT attack, industrial control systems, or other systems connected to the Internet.
Some even warn that terrorists could launch an attack on iOT, which could harm the global economy.
  1. Ransomware Ransomware has become too common on home PCs and corporate networks. Now experts say that it is only a matter of time before the attackers begin to block smart devices. Security researchers have already demonstrated the ability to install ransomware on smart thermostats. For example, they can raise the temperature to 95 degrees and refuse to return it to its normal state until the owner agrees to pay a ransom in Bitcoins. They can also launch similar attacks on garage doors, vehicles, or even appliances. How much would you pay to unlock your smart coffee pot first thing in the morning?
  2. Data theft Obtaining important data, such as customer names, credit card numbers, social security numbers, and other personal information, is still one of the main goals of cyber attacks.
IoT devices represent a whole new vector of attack for criminals looking for ways to invade corporate or home networks.
For example, if an improperly configured device or IoT sensor is connected to corporate networks, this can give attackers a new way to enter the network and potentially find the valuable data that they need.
  1. Home theft As smart locks and smart garage doors become more commonplace, it is also more likely that cybercriminals can become real thieves.
Home systems that are not properly protected can be vulnerable to criminals with sophisticated tools and software.
Security researchers are unlikely to have shown that itís quite easy to break into a house through smart locks from several different manufacturers, and smart garage doors do not seem to be much safer.
  1. Communication with children One of the most disturbing IoT security stories came from children.
One couple discovered that the stranger not only used his monitor for children to spy on their three-year-old son, this stranger also spoke with his child through the device.
Mother heard an unknown voice: ìWake up, boy, dad is looking for you,î and the child said that he was scared because at night someone was talking to him on an electronic device.
As more and more children’s gadgets and toys connect to the Internet, it seems likely that these frightening scenarios may become more common.
  1. Remote control of a vehicle As vehicles become smarter and more accessible on the Internet, they also become vulnerable to attack.
Hackers have shown that they can take control of a jeep, maximize air conditioning, change the radio station, start the wipers, and ultimately slow down the car.
The news led to the recall of 1.4 million cars, but whitehat researchers, following the original exploit, said they discovered additional vulnerabilities that were not fixed by the Chrysler patch applied to the recalled cars.
Although experts say the automotive industry is doing a great job of ensuring vehicle safety, it is almost certain that attackers will find new vulnerabilities in such smart cars.
  1. Personal attacks Sometimes IoT covers more than just devices – it can also include people who have connected medical devices implanted in their bodies.
An episode of the television series Homeland attempted a murder aimed at an implanted medical device, and former vice president Dick Cheney was so worried about this scenario that he turned off the wireless capabilities on his implanted defibrillator.
This kind of attack has not yet happened in real life, but it remains possible, as many medical devices become part of the IoT.
submitted by farabijfa to u/farabijfa [link] [comments]

Is A Hack Like This Even Possible? I Might Actually Be Crazy.

For a year my husband and I have noticed a decrease in our computers performance. There's a lot we can't explain. We also have a friend who has the knowledge, resources, time and access to pull something like this off. Our theory is that he's using our computers to mine bitcoins with our resources without our knowledge. It has to be profitable to be going on this long. OR some of this stuff is perfectly explainable and were just extremely paranoid and delusional. It has literally effected our mental health and I'm terrified for my husband's well-being. Any help on this would be appreciated more than you know.
For those interested in what we think we've found here is a list: 1. Our computers speakers will start buzzing or cracking at the same time. Computers are off and not connected together. At one point shortly before this started, we noticed one computer's sound was messed up and the headphones speakers were configured as a mic. This suddenly fixed itself. 2. Random network traffic that is not shown on the Task Manager view of the Ethernet connector. It seems to happen only if League of Legends is open. The RM shows a spike but the TM shows nothing. 3. We noticed that one computers internal SATA ports were configured as external SATA ports. 4. Strange things in the BIOS that weren't there before like a Windows ToGo device, a Linux device, even after flashing the BIOS. It seems like it posts twice. TPM settings popped up after re-flashing. 5. Lots of Bluetooth services with seemingly random letters and numbers after them that we can't change settings for or disable. We don't have Bluetooth devices on our computers. 6. NFC and Payment service on a PC? 7. strange hash files and GPU cache 8. Hyper-V services we didn't install 9. Running traceroute to anywhere, the first hop is always "*" 10. Network boot settings we can't change. 11. Routers Firewall blocking weird packets and weird firewall settings we haven't added in windows firewall. 12. Unspecified TCP connections and loopbacks in the resource monitor.
He also used his card to buy our windows key and is an Enterprise user who uses Azure. Another theory is that he's registered as our OEM to install the software automatically that does this for him.
Is this even theoretically possible or should we seek out a doctor and start taking antipsychotics?
submitted by RobotAnxietyAttack to hacked [link] [comments]

The best Tezos Wallets

The best Tezos Wallets
Tezos is a decentralized blockchain that simplifies formal verification, a method that mathematically proves the accuracy of the code controlling transactions. The Tezos blockchain has its own cryptocurrency called Tezos (XTZ), a cryptocurrency with two main functions – a self-administration system and the ability to form launch contracts using its own programming language – Michelson.
If you decide to convert your fiat savings into Tezos or exchange other cryptocurrencies for XTZ, you may have to make a choice among reliable wallets for this. In this article we will look into the best Tezos Wallets so that can help you understand them better.

Hardware Wallets

Hardware wallets are not liable to spam, viruses, phishing attacks, or malicious of the system. Moreover, they provide a high degree of protection to the private keys. Below is the list of hardware wallets that can be used for XTZ.
https://preview.redd.it/j79t9vbgeth31.jpg?width=800&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=d828387479fc4a2efed4fc857eb9bdf03f9878e9
  • Ledger Nano S
Nano S is a hard wallet from the product line of Ledger, a French manufacturer company. As all other Ledger products, Nano S traditionally looks like a USB flash drive. But this time, you will need to use the USB cable that comes with the wallet to connect to a computer. Ledger Nano S has a chip that is similar with chips on bank cards or biometric passports. Your private key is stored in an isolated environment and is effectively protected. Ledger Nano S also has a screen on it where you can see each transaction made. In case you lose your Nano S wallet, the account can be easily restored on any other Ledger device. Ledger Nano S supports over 20 cryptocurrencies including Tezos (XTZ).
  • Trezor Model T
Trezor T is the flagship model from the well-known Czech manufacturer SatoshiLabs. Model T has a color Touch-Screen display, an SD port and a quantity of supported coins – XTZ is among those coins. When Trezor T is not connected to the computer, it turns off and disconnects from the Internet. Thus, user funds are stored on the device beyond the reach of attackers. Trezor hardware case is ultrasonically soldered, making it difficult to be restored after being damaged.

Web Wallets

Web wallets can be a simple way to get started investing in cryptocurrency. All web wallets can be used right from a browser without the need of downloading software. Beyond that, many of web wallets offer free mobile apps.
  • TezBox Wallet
TezBox was the first GUI released for Tezos. The wallet was developed by the Tezos community and released during the ICO period. TezBox is available for web, desktop and mobile wallets with its user-friendly interface. Users may be assured that all private keys will be stored on their devices safely due to the secured wallet interface. TexBox is the first wallet integrated with hardware wallets Trezor and Ledger Nano S that gives it the increased security.

https://preview.redd.it/zmnx9fwpeth31.png?width=1696&format=png&auto=webp&s=d926f570fb736dd6fcd338fae270cdcfebad9654
  • Guarda Wallet
Guarda Wallet is available as a Web, Mobile and Desktop Wallet and a Chrome extension. It supports more than 40 coins and 10,000 tokens as well as XTZ. The web wallet enables to access cryptocurrency from any modern browser, the website itself looks presentable and made convenient to use. Using the mobile wallet, you can create a new wallet or import an existing one. Besides the common functions such as storage, deposit/withdrawal of cryptocurrency, users can instantly buy the exact amount of cryptocurrency using a bank card or exchange coins and tokens.
  • Magnum Wallet
While Magnum is a multi-asset wallet, one of the best known assets it supports is Tezos (XTZ). Being a light wallet, you do not need to download the full blockchain of any of the cryptocurrencies it works with. The wallet does not keep users’ personal information. As Magnum is a web wallet, it has the extra benefit of being available for nearly any platform, easy of access from any kind of device with an internet browser. Magnum wallet also supports Ledger devices so those can be easily linked to the app.

Mobile Wallets

Mobile wallets are used on your smartphone via an app. Similar to Apple or Google Pay, you can use mobile wallets when shopping in physical shops as cryptocurrencies become more popular and acceptable. Mobile wallets may be safer compared to online wallets and also be easy to use on the go.
  • Trust Wallet
Trust is a wallet for tokens of ERC20 standard, tooled for mobile devices. It offers simple installation and affordable feature set, that does not require additional user skills and abilities. Trust Wallet and Binance are working on new features, including market monitoring, user networks, test networks, and deep integration with the Binance infrastructure. Trust Wallet already supports Tezos as well as other digital currencies.
https://preview.redd.it/ckrma5aueth31.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=f37213bf83c82028b97837545536c353664a8368
  • AirGap Wallet
AirGap is a wallet, that allows you to keep your cryptocurrency securely on your mobile. AirGap is a system with two device access: you can use your old mobile device as a hardware wallet using the AirGap Vault app to keep the private key there; while your working smartphone will have the wallet itself. The connection occurs with QR codes, this ensures a genuine one-way communication between AirGap Wallet and AirGap Vault. This implies that no private information ever leaves the air-gapped old phone. Besides Tezos, AirGap supports diverse amount of cryptocurrencies.
  • Tezos.Blue Wallet
In spite of being a lightweight wallet, Tezos.Blue does not scant on security or its features. It is an original app and that is why it gets strong protection straight from the operating system. Using the Tezos.Blue you will have actual updates from the network for a truly live operational comfort. Tezos.Blue is also available in a desktop version. Tezos.Blue is also available in a desktop version.

Desktop Wallets

Desktop wallet can be downloaded and installed on a computer. Desktop wallets may be safer if your computer is not, or more preferably, has never used the Internet connection. Desktop Wallets are perfect for storing large amounts of crypto that you don’t want to use on an everyday basis.
  • Atomic Wallet
Atomic is a convenient, easy to use and safe cryptocurrency wallet, that receives the preferences of many users around the world. It is a decentralized multicurrency wallet that is known in the crypto community for supporting more than 500 cryptocurrencies including Tezos. The primary goal of Atomic Wallet is not just to store cryptocurrency, but also to create a strong ecosystem with many functions.

https://preview.redd.it/apv4gpe0fth31.png?width=1686&format=png&auto=webp&s=dc5602c0eda220594b427c0b42923b8bacd727ae
  • Atomix HD Tezos Wallet
HD wallets (hierarchical deterministic wallet) are the wallets that use a single 12 or 18-word mnemonic phrase that is used to identify following addresses and private keys in a wallet software. Atomix is HD wallet that supports Tezos, it merges benefits of decentralized and centralized exchanges. With Atomix, all private keys are kept encoded on the computer. No identity verification or registration is required to use the wallet.
  • Simplestaking
Simplestaking is Tezos focused wallet being a web app and desktop app with support for hardware wallet Trezor Model T. The wallet is developed using NgRx state management and Angular framework.
  • Galleon Tezos Wallet (Tezori)
Galleon is a smart open source wallet for XTZ that supports both hardware and software wallets on Windows, Linux and Mac. It was developed by Cryptonomic and funded by the Tezos Foundation.
  • Tezos CLI Wallet
The Tezos CLI wallet can be used by those users who have some coding understanding while it requires the use of command lines. Tezos has mentioned the wallet on its website and has been audited by an independent external security inspector. As the Tezos CLI needs some level of command line knowledge, it can be quite difficult to use.

How to keep your wallet safe

A cryptocurrency wallet can be regarded as a regular wallet with money, but it has advanced features, which increases the level of risk. Simple rules will help prevent the loss of your own savings:
  1. Do not store large amounts for long periods on wallets that do not provide full control. It is better to store large amounts for a long time only in wallets that provide full control over the private key and, accordingly, over digital assets. This will help protect your coins against fraud and cyber attacks.
  2. Encrypt information and back up private keys. In case of reinstalling the PC or the occurrence of force majeure situations, this will help to restore access to the wallet quickly.
  3. Store secret keys on an offline device. It is preferable to use a platform that is not accessible for hacking via the Internet.
  4. Use reliable antivirus software and update it regularly. This will prevent the leakage of personal data that hackers can use to crack passwords.
  5. Register several types of wallets. It will allow you to distribute your funds and use the most suitable wallet depending on the situation.
If you use your Tezos wallet wisely and do not neglect the precautions, the risk of funds loss will be minimized.

Feel free to follow our updates and news on Twitter, Facebook, Telegram and BitcoinTalk. Read what the customers say about SimpleSwap on Trustpilot. Don’t hesitate to contact us with any questions you may have via [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by SimpleSwapExchange to tezos [link] [comments]

(Updated) [Staking] Reddcoin Core client GUI wallet on a Raspberry Pi Model 3B

Intro

This thread is an update to my first Reddcoin staking tutorial that was written 7 months ago.
 
The reason for the update
My Reddcoin Core software crashed and became unusable. My Raspberry Pi 3B would lag and freeze, I couldn't stake anymore.
 
Instead of just redoing everything the same way, I wanted to see if I could improve on 3 points:
 
The updates
 
If you would like to tip me
Writing a tutorial like this takes time and effort; tips are appreciated. My Reddcoin address: RqvdnNX5MTam855Y2Vudv7yVgtXdcYaQAW.
     

Overview

 

Steps

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     

Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Snr5e8bzftI
This video shows how long it takes to start Reddcoin Core.   TL;DR:
     

Extra

Backup
Backup your wallet to prevent losing the RDDs in your wallet! There are two methods to backup, do both. Make new backups if you create a new receiving address!
 
 
   
Boot with only 1 USB drive plugged in:
Make sure only the USB drive (with the swap partition and data partition) is plugged in when you boot up your Raspberry Pi. This to make sure the swap partition (/dev/sda1) is recognized correctly.   If you boot up with multiple USB drives, Lubuntu might see the USB drive with the swap partition as the second drive (instead of the first drive), and ignore the 2 GB swap partition. If this happens, starting Reddcoin can render the Raspberry Pi unresponsive.
   
Connection issues If you have issues syncing the blockchain because you have 0 network connections, please follow the instructions in this thread.
   
Start Reddcoin Core easier
Run a shell script (.sh file), so you can start Reddcoin just by double clicking on an icon on your Desktop.
   
Minimization options
Adjust minimization options, so you can safely press on the X button (the close/exit button on the upper right corner).
   
RealVNC VNC Viewer (client) and VNC Connect (server): To remote connect to the Raspberry Pi, I use VNC Viewer ad VNC Connect from RealVNC.
 
   
Chromium as browser: The updates break Firefox, the browser crashes when you try to run it. Install another browser, Chromium, to solve this issue.
   
Updates / Upgrades
If Software Updater shows up and tells you that there is updated software available, do not install the updates using Software Updater. Use LXTerminal to update Lubuntu.  
     

Credits:

   
Credits in previous tutorial:
submitted by Yavuz_Selim to reddCoin [link] [comments]

The rewrite of Brave named Brave Core is available on the Brave Dev channel

The rewrite of Brave named Brave Core is available on the Brave Dev channel
Hello BAT community!

An early build of the rewrite of Brave on desktop named Brave Core is available on the Brave Dev channel: https://brave.com/download-dev

Close to a year ago, on Nov 10, 2017 we made our first commit for this rewrite: "Hello World!"
https://github.com/brave/brave-core/commit/7c2aadf44ac43566ce23c26d190b690cebaa7ff8
In hindsight, we should have used a cooler first commit message, something like the Bitcoin genesis block text of: "Chancellor on Brink of Second Bailout for Banks" :P.

This version is known as 0.55.x.
0.55.x will eventually be the first version of Brave Core to replace the Brave builds which are available on brave.com.

You will see 0.55.x get updated at least weekly and progress through its 3 week life on Dev channel, spends 3 weeks on Beta channel, then migrates to release channel within a week after Oct 16th.

Some big items from the top of my head that you can look out for in this release:
  • All extensions are now installable by default. We maintain 3 levels of support: Allowed and vetted, Allowed and unvetted (we give an extra warning), and blocked. Currently the blocked list is empty but we plan to add unsafe things there.
  • You can import both from the current version of Brave, Chrome, and other browsers.
  • Beautiful welcome page.
  • Multi channel support, initially with the release of Dev channel. Beta channel and Release channel coming in 3 and 6 weeks respectively. Channels will always be updated, where Dev channel will always contain the newest code.
  • Ad-blocking which is more efficient than the current version of Brave since all blocking is done on the network thread now.
  • Regional ad-blocking, but with auto selection of region instead of opt-in like in the current product.
  • Tracking protection support.
  • HTTPS everywhere support.
  • Cookie blocking support.
  • Fingerprinting protection support.
  • Referrer blocking support.
  • NoScript support.
  • Permission based autoplay support.
  • WebTorrent support.
  • Default built-in light and dark theme support, dark theme by default only for Dev channel, but can be used in any channel in preferences.
  • Persistent "Block this element" support by right clicking on anything in any page.
  • Chrome specific privacy invasive things are all removed.
  • Search terms fed to Google suggest off by default, instead use Alexa top sites as a data source.
  • An early form of Brave Rewards, formerly called Brave payments is in, but currently disabled on Windows.
  • Brave's new tab page.
  • Restores last session by default.
  • Distinct search engine selection for private new tab page.
  • Localization.
  • Safe browsing proxied to be more private.
  • Flash disabled by default, but can be turned on.
  • Using PDF.js by default instead of PDFium which has frequent security problems in Chrome.
  • Widevine on macOS.
  • I'm forgetting lots more...
Some big items landing in an update within the next couple weeks are:
  • Tor private window support.
  • Widevine on Windows (Linux will be later but not within 2 weeks).
  • More UI changes to look more Brave-like.
  • Referral builds
You can find a detailed rundown of the roadmap here:
https://github.com/brave/brave-browsewiki/Roadmap

You can find release schedule related information here:
https://github.com/brave/brave-browsewiki/Brave-Release-Schedule

I'd love to hear your feedback in this thread, and if you find issues, please feel free to post them here:
https://github.com/brave/brave-browseissues

Here are some screenshots for your enjoyment:
Welcome page

Same shields panel and protections

Brave/BAT Rewards

Customize sites you're contributing to

Webtorrent sample site

Change default theme color in settings




submitted by bbondy to BATProject [link] [comments]

[META] New to PC Building? - September 2018 Edition

Intro

You've heard from all your gaming friends/family or co-workers that custom PCs are the way to go. Or maybe you've been fed up with your HP, Dell, Acer, Gateway, Lenovo, etc. pre-builts or Macs and want some more quality and value in your next PC purchase. Or maybe you haven't built a PC in a long time and want to get back into the game. Well, here's a good place to start.

Instructions

  1. Make a budget for your PC (e.g., $800, $1000, $1250, $1500, etc.).
  2. Decide what you will use your PC for.
    • For gaming, decide what games and at what resolution and FPS you want to play at.
    • For productivity, decide what software you'll need and find the recommended specs to use those apps.
    • For a bit of both, your PC build should be built on the HIGHEST specs recommended for your applications (e.g., if you only play FortNite and need CPU power for CFD simulations, use specs recommended for CFD).
    Here are some rough estimates for builds with entirely NEW parts:
    1080p 60FPS ultra-settings modern AAA gaming: ~$1,200
    1440p 60FPS high/ultra-settings modern AAA gaming: ~$1,600
    1080p 144FPS ultra-settings modern AAA gaming: $2,000
    4K 50FPS medium/high-settings modern AAA gaming: > $2,400
    It's noted that some compromises (e.g., lower settings and/or resolution) can be made to achieve the same or slightly lower gaming experience within ±15% of the above prices. It's also noted that you can still get higher FPS on older or used PCs by lowering settings and/or resolution AND/OR buying new/used parts to upgrade your system. Make a new topic about it if you're interested.
    Also note that AAA gaming is different from e-sport games like CSGO, DOTA2, FortNite, HOTS, LoL, Overwatch, R6S, etc. Those games have lower requirements and can make do with smaller budgets.
  3. Revise your budget AND/OR resolution and FPS until both are compatible. Compare this to the recommended requirements of the most demanding game on your list. For older games, you might be able to lower your budget. For others, you might have to increase your budget.
    It helps to watch gaming benchmarks on Youtube. A good example of what you're looking for is something like this (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eLxSOoSdjY). Take note of the resolution, settings, FPS, and the specs in the video title/description; ask yourself if the better gaming experience is worth increasing your budget OR if you're okay with lower settings and lowering your budget. Note that you won't be able to see FPS higher than 60FPS for Youtube videos; something like this would have to be seen in-person at a computer shop.
  4. Make a build on https://ca.pcpartpicker.com/. If you still have no idea how to put together parts, start here (http://www.logicalincrements.com/) to get an understanding of PC part tiers. If you want more info about part explanations and brief buying tips, see the next section below.
  5. Click on the Reddit logo button next to Markup, copy and paste the generated text (in markup mode if using new Reddit), and share your build for review!
  6. Consider which retailer to buy your parts from. Here's a table comparing different retailers: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1L8uijxuoJH4mjKCjwkJbCrKprCiU8CtM15mvOXxzV1s/edit?usp=sharing
  7. Buy your parts! Use PCPP above to send you e-mail alerts on price drops or subscribe to /bapcsalescanada for deals.
    You can get parts from the following PC retailers in alphabetical order:
  8. After procuring your parts, it's time to build. Use a good Youtube tutorial like this (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhX0fOUYd8Q) that teach BAPC fundamentals, but always refer to your product manuals or other Youtube tutorials for part-specific instructions like CPU mounting, radiator mounting, CMOS resetting, etc. If it everything still seems overwhelming, you can always pay a computer shop or a friend/family member to build it for you.
    It might also be smart to look up some first-time building mistakes to avoid:
  9. Share your experience with us.
  10. If you have any other questions, use the search bar first. If it's not there, make a topic.

BAPC News (Last Updated - 2018/09/20)

CPU

https://www.tomshardware.com/news/intel-9000-series-cpu-faq,37743.html
Intel 9000 CPUs (Coffee Lake Refresh) will be coming out in Q4. With the exception of i9 (8-core, 12 threads) flagship CPUs, the i3, i5, and i7 lineups are almost identical to their Intel 8000 (Coffee Lake) series, but slightly clocked faster. If you are wondering if you should upgrade to the newer CPU on the same tier (e.g., i5-8400 to i5-9400), I don't recommend that you do as you will only see marginal performance increases.

Mobo

https://www.anandtech.com/show/13135/more-details-on-intels-z390-chipset-exposed
Z370s will now be phased out for Z390s boards, which will natively support Intel 9000 CPUs (preferably i5-9600K, i7-9700K, and i9-9900K).

GPU

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDrpsv0QIR0
RTX 2080 and 2080 Ti benchmarks are out; they provide ~10 and ~20 frames better than the 1080 Ti and also feature ray tracing (superior lighting and shadow effects) which is featured in only ~30 games so far (i.e., not supported a lot); effectively, they provide +25% more performance for +70% increased cost. My recommendation is NOT to buy them unless you need it for work or have lots of disposable income. GTX 1000 Pascal series are still relevant in today's gaming specs.

Part Explanations

CPU

The calculator part. More GHz is analogous to fast fingers number crunching in the calculator. More cores is analogous to having more calculators. More threads is analogous to having more filing clerks piling more work for the calculator to do. Microarchitectures (core design) is analogous to how the internal circuit inside the calculator is designed (e.g., AMD FX series are slower than Intel equivalents even with higher OC'd GHz speeds because the core design is subpar). All three are important in determining CPU speed.
In general, higher GHz is more important for gaming now whereas # cores and threads are more important for multitasking like streaming, video editing, and advanced scientific/engineering computations. Core designs from both AMD and Intel in their most recent products are very good now, but something to keep in mind.

Overclocking

The basic concept of overclocking (OCing) is to feed your CPU more power through voltage and hoping it does calculations faster. Whether your parts are good overclockers depends on the manufacturing process of your specific part and slight variations in materials and manufacturing process will result in different overclocking capability ("silicon lottery"). The downside to this is that you can void your warranties because doing this will produce excess heat that will decrease the lifespan of your parts AND that there is a trial-and-error process to finding OC settings that are stable. Unstable OC settings result in computer freezes or random shut-offs from excess heat. OCing will give you extra performance often for free or by investing in a CPU cooler to control your temperatures so that the excess heat will not decrease your parts' lifespans as much. If you don't know how to OC, don't do it.

Current Products

Intel CPUs have higher GHz than AMD CPUs, which make them better for gaming purposes. However, AMD Ryzen CPUs have more cores and threads than their Intel equivalents. The new parts are AMD Ryzen 3, 5, or 7 2000 series or Intel i3, i5, or i7 8000 series (Coffee Lake). Everything else is outdated.
If you want to overclock on an AMD system, know that you can get some moderate OC on a B350/B450 with all CPUs. X370/X470 mobos usually come with better VRMs meant for OCing 2600X, 2700, and 2700X. If you don't know how to OC, know that the -X AMD CPUs have the ability to OC themselves automatically without manually settings. For Intel systems, you cannot OC unless the CPU is an unlocked -K chip (e.g., i3-8350K, i5-8600K, i7-8700K, etc.) AND the motherboard is a Z370 mobo. In general, it is not worth getting a Z370 mobo UNLESS you are getting an i5-8600K and i7-8700K.

CPU and Mobo Compatibility

Note about Ryzen 2000 CPUs on B350 mobos: yes, you CAN pair them up since they use the same socket. You might get an error message on PCPP that says that they might not be compatible. Call the retailer and ask if the mobo you're planning on buying has a "Ryzen 2000 Series Ready" sticker on the box. This SHOULD NOT be a problem with any mobos manufactured after February 2018.
Note about Intel 9000 CPUs on B360 / Z370 mobos: same as above with Ryzen 2000 CPUs on B350 or X370 boards.

CPU Cooler (Air / Liquid)

Air or liquid cooling for your CPU. This is mostly optional unless heavy OCing on AMD Ryzen CPUs and/or on Intel -K and i7-8700 CPUs.
For more information about air and liquid cooling comparisons, see here:

Motherboard/mobo

Part that lets all the parts talk to each other. Comes in different sizes from small to big: mITX, mATX, ATX, and eATX. For most people, mATX is cost-effective and does the job perfectly. If you need more features like extra USB slots, go for an ATX. mITX is for those who want a really small form factor and are willing to pay a premium for it. eATX mobos are like ATX mobos except that they have more features and are bigger - meant for super PC enthusiasts who need the features.
If you are NOT OCing, pick whatever is cheap and meets your specs. I recommend ASUS or MSI because they have RMA centres in Canada in case it breaks whereas other parts are outside of Canada like in the US. If you are OCing, then you need to look at the quality of the VRMs because those will greatly influence the stability and lifespan of your parts.

Memory/RAM

Part that keeps Windows and your software active. Currently runs on the DDR4 platform for new builds. Go for dual channel whenever possible. Here's a breakdown of how much RAM you need:
AMD Ryzen CPUs get extra FPS for faster RAM speeds (ideally 3200MHz) in gaming when paired with powerful video cards like the GTX 1070. Intel Coffee Lake CPUs use up a max of 2667MHz for B360 mobos. Higher end Z370 mobos can support 4000 - 4333MHz RAM depending on the mobo, so make sure you shop carefully!
It's noted that RAM prices are highly inflated because of the smartphone industry and possibly artificial supply shortages. For more information: https://www.extremetech.com/computing/263031-ram-prices-roof-stuck-way

Storage

Part that store your files in the form of SSDs and HDDs.

Solid State Drives (SSDs)

SSDs are incredibly quick, but are expensive per TB; they are good for booting up Windows and for reducing loading times for gaming. For an old OEM pre-built, upgrading the PC with an SSD is the single greatest speed booster you can do to your system. For most people, you want to make sure the SSD you get is NOT DRAM-less as these SSDs do not last as long as their DRAM counterparts (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ybIXsrLCgdM). It is also noted that the bigger the capacity of the SSD, the faster they are. SSDs come in four forms:
The 2.5" SATA form is cheaper, but it is the old format with speeds up to 550MB/s. M.2 SATA SSDs have the same transfer speeds as 2.5" SATA SSDs since they use the SATA interface, but connect directly to the mobo without a cable. It's better for cable management to get an M.2 SATA SSD over a 2.5" SATA III SSD. M.2 PCI-e SSDs are the newest SSD format and transfer up to 4GB/s depending on the PCI-e lanes they use (e.g., 1x, 2x, 4x, etc.). They're great for moving large files (e.g., 4K video production). For more info about U.2 drives, see this post (https://www.reddit.com/bapccanada/comments/8jxfqs/meta_new_to_pc_building_may_2018_edition/dzqj5ks/). Currently more common for enterprise builds, but could see some usage in consumer builds.

Hard Disk Drives (HDDs)

HDDs are slow with transfer speeds of ~100MB/s, but are cheap per TB compared to SSDs. We are now at SATA III speeds, which have a max theoretical transfer rate of 600MB/s. They also come in 5400RPM and 7200RPM forms. 5400RPM uses slightly less power and are cheaper, but aren't as fast at dealing with a large number of small files as 7200RPM HDDs. When dealing with a small number of large files, they have roughly equivalent performance. It is noted that even a 10,000RPM HDD will still be slower than an average 2.5" SATA III SSD.

Others

SSHDs are hybrids of SSDs and HDDs. Although they seem like a good combination, it's much better in all cases to get a dedicated SSD and a dedicated HDD instead. This is because the $/speed better for SSDs and the $/TB is better for HDDs. The same can be said for Intel Optane. They both have their uses, but for most users, aren't worth it.

Overall

I recommend a 2.5" or M.2 SATA ≥ 250GB DRAM SSD and a 1TB or 2TB 7200RPM HDD configuration for most users for a balance of speed and storage capacity.

Video Card/GPU

Part that runs complex calculations in games and outputs to your monitor and is usually the most expensive part of the budget. The GPU you pick is dictated by the gaming resolution and FPS you want to play at.
In general, all video cards of the same product name have almost the same non-OC'd performance (e.g., Asus Dual-GTX1060-06G has the same performance as the EVGA 06G-P4-6163-KR SC GAMING). The different sizes and # fans DO affect GPU OCing capability, however. The most important thing here is to get an open-air video card, NOT a blower video card (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0domMRFG1Rw). The blower card is meant for upgrading pre-builts where case airflow is limited.
For cost-performance, go for the NVIDIA GTX cards because of the cryptomining industry that has inflated AMD RX cards. Bitcoin has taken a -20% hit since January's $10,000+ as of recently, but the cryptomining industry is still ongoing. Luckily, this means prices have nearly corrected itself to original MSRP in 2016.
In general:
Note that if your monitor has FreeSync technology, get an AMD card. If your monitor has G-Sync, get a NVIDIA card. Both technologies allow for smooth FPS gameplay. If you don't have either, it doesn't really matter which brand you get.
For AMD RX cards, visit https://www.pcworld.com/article/3197885/components-graphics/every-amd-radeon-rx-graphics-card-you-can-buy-for-pc-gaming.html

New NVIDIA GeForce RTX Series

New NVIDIA 2000 RTX series have been recently announced and will be carried in stores in Q3 and Q4. Until all of the products have been fully vetted and reviewed, we cannot recommend those yet as I cannot say if they are worth what NVIDIA has marketed them as. But they will be faster than their previous equivalents and will require more wattage to use. The 2070, 2080, and 2080 Ti will feature ray tracing, which is a new feature seen in modern CG movies that greatly enhances lighting and shadow effects. At this time, < 30 games will use ray tracing (https://www.pcgamer.com/21-games-will-support-nvidias-real-time-ray-tracing-here-are-demos-of-tomb-raider-and-control/). It's also noted that the 2080 Ti is the Titan XP equivalent, which is why it's so expensive. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Irs8jyEmmPQ) The community's general recommendation is NOT to pre-order them until we see some reviews and benchmarks from reviewers first.
Looks like a couple of benchmarks are out. While keeping other parts equal the following results were obtained(https://videocardz.com/77983/nvidia-geforce-rtx-2080-ti-and-rtx-2080-official-performance-unveiled). So the 2080 and 2080 Ti are better than last generation's 1080 Ti by ~10 and ~20 frames respectively.

Case

Part that houses your parts and protects them from its environment. Should often be the last part you choose because the selection is big enough to be compatible with any build you choose as long as the case is equal to or bigger than the mobo form factor.
Things to consider: aesthetics, case airflow, cable management, material, cooling options (radiators or # of fan spaces), # fans included, # drive bays, toolless installation, power supply shroud, GPU clearance length, window if applicable (e.g., acrylic, tempered glass), etc.
It is recommended to watch or read case reviews on Youtube to get an idea of a case's performance in your setup.

Power Supply/PSU

Part that runs your PC from the wall socket. Never go with an non-reputable/cheap brand out on these parts as low-quality parts could damage your other parts. Recommended branded PSUs are Corsair, EVGA, Seasonic, and Thermaltake, generally. For a tier list, see here (https://linustechtips.com/main/topic/631048-psu-tier-list-updated/).

Wattage

Wattage depends on the video card chosen, if you plan to OC, and/or if you plan to upgrade to a more powerful PSU in the future. Here's a rule of thumb for non-OC wattages that meet NVIDIA's recommendations:
There are also PSU wattage calculators that you can use to estimate your wattage. How much wattage you used is based on your PC parts, how much OCing you're doing, your peripherals (e.g., gaming mouse and keyboard), and how long you plan to leave your computer running, etc. It is noted that these calculators use conservative estimates, so use the outputted wattage as a baseline of how much you need. Here are the calculators (thanks, VitaminDeity).
Pick ONE calculator to use and use the recommended wattage, NOT recommended product, as a baseline of what wattage you need for your build. Note that Cooler Master and Seasonic use the exact calculator as Outervision. For more details about wattage, here are some reference videos:

Modularity

You might also see some info about modularity (non-modular, semi-modular, or fully-modular). These describe if the cables will come connected to the PSU or can be separated of your own choosing. Non-modular PSUs have ALL of the cable connections attached to the PSU with no option to remove unneeded cables. Semi-modular PSUs have separate cables for HDDs/SSDs and PCI-e connectors, but will have CPU and mobo cables attached. Modular PSUs have all of their cables separate from each other, allowing you to fully control over cable management. It is noted that with decent cooling and airflow in your case, cable management has little effect on your temperatures (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YDCMMf-_ASE).

80+ Efficiency Ratings

As for ratings (80+, 80+ bronze, 80+ gold, 80+ platinum), these are the efficiencies of your PSU. Please see here for more information. If you look purely on electricity costs, the 80+ gold PSUs will be more expensive than 80+ bronze PSUs for the average Canadian user until a breakeven point of 6 years (assuming 8 hours/day usage), but often the better performance, longer warranty periods, durable build quality, and extra features like fanless cooling is worth the extra premium. In general, the rule of thumb is 80+ bronze for entry-level office PCs and 80+ gold for mid-tier or higher gaming/workstation builds. If the price difference between a 80+ bronze PSU and 80+ gold PSU is < 20%, get the 80+ gold PSU!

Warranties

Warranties should also be looked at when shopping for PSUs. In general, longer warranties also have better PSU build quality. In general, for 80+ bronze and gold PSU units from reputable brands:
Any discrepancies are based on varied wattages (i.e., higher wattages have longer warranties) or updated warranty periods. Please refer to the specific product's warranty page for the correct information. For EVGA PSUs, see here (https://www.evga.com/support/warranty/power-supplies/). For Seasonic PSUs, see here (https://seasonic.com/support#period). For Corsair PSUs, see here (https://www.corsair.com/ca/en/warranty).
For all other PSU inquiries, look up the following review sites for the PSUs you're interested in buying:
These guys are engineering experts who take apart PSUs, analyze the quality of each product, and provide an evaluation of the product. Another great website is http://www.orionpsudb.com/, which shows which PSUs are manufactured by different OEMs.

Operating System (OS)

Windows 10

The most common OS. You can download the ISO here (https://www.microsoft.com/en-ca/software-download/windows10). For instructions on how to install the ISO from a USB drive, see here (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-hardware/manufacture/desktop/install-windows-from-a-usb-flash-drive) or watch a video here (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLfnuE1unS8). For most users, go with the 64-bit version.
If you purchase a Windows 10 retail key (i.e., you buy it from a retailer or from Microsoft directly), keep in mind that you are able to transfer it between builds. So if you're building another PC for the 2nd, 3rd, etc. time, you can reuse the key for those builds PROVIDED that you deactivate your key before installing it on your new PC. These keys are ~$120.
However, if you have an OEM key (e.g., pre-builts), that key is tied specifically to your mobo. If you ever decide to upgrade your mobo on that pre-built PC, you might have to buy a new Windows 10 license. For more information, see this post (https://www.techadvisor.co.uk/feature/windows/windows-10-oem-or-retail-3665849/). The cheaper Windows 10 keys you can find on Kinguin are OEM keys; activating and deactivating these keys may require phoning an automated Microsoft activation line. Most of these keys are legitimate and cost ~$35, although Microsoft does not intend for home users to obtain this version of it. Buyer beware.
The last type of key is a volume licensing key. They are licensed in large volumes to corporate or commercial usage. You can find lots of these keys on eBay for ~$10, but if the IT department who manages these keys audit who is using these keys or if the number of activations have exceeded the number allotted on that one key, Microsoft could block that key and invalidate your license. Buyer beware.
For more information on differentiating between all three types of keys, see this page (https://www.tenforums.com/tutorials/49586-determine-if-windows-license-type-oem-retail-volume.html).
If money is tight, you can get Windows 10 from Microsoft and use a trial version of it indefinitely. However, there will be a watermark in the bottom-right of your screen until you activate your Windows key.

MacOS

If you're interested in using MacOS, look into Hackintosh builds. This will allow you to run MacOS to run on PC parts, saving you lots of money. These builds are pretty picky about part compatibility, so you might run into some headaches trying to go through with this. For more information, see the following links:

Linux

If you're interested in a free open-source OS, see the following links:
For more information, go to /linux, /linuxquestions, and /linux4noobs.

Peripherals

Monitors

Keyboards and Mice

Overall

Please note that the cost-performance builds will change daily because PC part prices change often! Some builds will have excellent cost-performance one day and then have terrible cost-performance the next. If you want to optimize cost-performance, it is your responsibility to do this if you go down this route!
Also, DO NOT PM me with PC build requests! It is in your best interests to make your own topic so you can get multiple suggestions and input from the community rather than just my own. Thanks again.

Sample Builds

Here are some sample builds that are reliable, but may not be cost-optimized builds. These builds were created on September 9, 2018; feel free to "edit this part list" and create your own builds.

Links

Helpful links to common problems below:

Contributors

Thanks to:

Housekeeping

2019/09/22
2019/09/18
Updates:
2019/09/09
Updates:
Sorry for the lack of updates. I recently got a new job where I work 12 hours/day for 7 days at a time out of the city. What little spare time I have is spent on grad school and the gym instead of gaming. So I've been pretty behind on the news and some might not be up-to-date as my standards would have been with less commitments. If I've made any mistakes, please understand it might take a while for me to correct them. Thank you!
submitted by BlackRiot to bapccanada [link] [comments]

Vertnode - An automated solution for installing Vertcoin node(s) on Single Board Computers

Hello Vertcoin Community,
Eager to contribute to the Vertcoin Community I began creating step by step walkthrough guides on how to get a Vertcoin node up and running on a Raspberry Pi, Raspberry Pi Zero and Intel NUC. Along with information to get a Vertcoin node up and running was also optional steps to install p2pool-vtc.
I decided that while this step by step guide might be helpful to a few, a setup script may prove to be useful to a wider range of people. I have this script to a point where I think it may be productive to share with a bigger audience, for those who are brave and have this hardware sitting around or like to tinker with projects; I invite you to test this setup script if you are interested, if you run into errors any sort of verbose console output of the error proves to be extremely helpful in troubleshooting.
The script was designed to produce a “headless” server... meaning we will not be using a GUI to configure Vertcoin or check to see how things are running. In fact, once the server is set up, you will only interact with it using command line calls over SSH. The idea is to have this full node be simple, low-power, with optimized memory usage and something that “just runs” in your basement, closet, etc.
Why run a headless node on a Single Board Computer?
The idea is to have this full node be simple, low-power, with optimized memory usage and something that “just runs” in your basement, closet, etc.
Required: USB Flash Drive 6GB - 32GB
Please note that the script was designed for Single Board Computers first and looks for an accessible USB Flash Drive to use for storing the blockchain and swap file, as constant writing to a microSD can degrade the health of the microSD.
Supports

Hardware

All of the hardware listed above is hardware that I have personally tested / am testing on myself. The plan is to continue expanding my arsenal of single board computers and continue to add support for more hardware to ensure as much compatibility as possible.
Functionality
It is worth noting that LIT can be ran with multiple configurations, the ones displayed in the Post Installation Report reflect values that run LIT with the Vertcoin Mainnet. Please be aware that the Vertcoin Testnet chain has not been mined 100% of the time in the past, if you make transactions on the Vertcoin testnet that do not go through it is likely because the chain has stopped being mined.
BE CAREFUL WITH YOUR COINS, ONLY TEST WITH WHAT YOU ARE OKAY WITH LOSING IF YOU USE THE MAINNET.

Vertcoin Testnet Coins

https://tvtc.blkidx.org/faucet/
I've included some documentation on LIT I created which includes information I found to be useful: https://github.com/e-corp-sam-sepiol/vertnode/blob/mastedocs/lit.md
Please visit the mit-dci/lit github repository for the most up to date information on lit: https://github.com/mit-dci/lit

Vertnode | Automated Vertcoin Node Installation Script

https://github.com/e-corp-sam-sepiol/vertnode

Recommended: Use Etcher to install the chosen OS to your microSD card / USB flash drive.

If you intend on installing Ubuntu Server 16.04 to your Intel NUC please use Etcher to install the .iso to your USB flash drive.
https://etcher.io/
PLEASE NOTE THIS SCRIPT MAY GIVE AN ERROR. THIS IS THE NATURE OF TESTING. PLEASE REPORT YOUR ERRORS IF YOU WANT THEM TO BE FIXED/RESOLVED. THANK YOU FOR BETTERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SCRIPT.

Ubuntu Server 16.04 Setup Details

You can use different clients to ssh into your node. One option is using PuTTY or Git Bash on Windows which is included in the desktop version of Git. If you are using Linux you can simply open a new terminal window and ssh to the IP address of your node (hardware you intend installing the Vertcoin node on).
You will need to know the IP address of your node, this can be found on your router page.
ssh 192.168.1.5 -l pi For example, this command uses ssh to login to 192.168.1.5 using the -l login name of pi. The IP address of your node will likely be different for you, in this example I am logging into a Raspberry Pi which has a default login name of pi.
A brief list of commands that can be used to check on the Vertcoin node status:
vertcoin-cli getblockchaininfo | Grab information about your blockchain
vertcoin-cli getblockcount | Grab the current count of blocks on your node
vertcoin-cli getconnectioncount | Grab the current count of connections to your node. A number of connections larger than 8 means that you have incoming connections to your node. The default settings are to make 8 outgoing connections. If you want incoming connections please port forward your Raspberry Pi in your Router settings page.
vertcoin-cli getpeerinfo | Grab the information about the peers you have connected to / are connected to
vertcoin-cli getnettotals | Grab network data, how much downloaded/upload displayed in bytes
tail -f ~/.vertcoin/debug.log | Output the latest lines in the Vertcoin debug.log to see verbose information about the Vertcoin daemon (ctrl+c to stop)
Thank you to all who have helped me and inspired me thus far, @b17z, @jamesl22, @vertcoinmarketingteam, @canen, @flakfired, @etang600, @BDF, @tucker178, @Xer0
This work is dedicated to the users of Vertcoin, thank you for making this possible.
7/20/2018 Thank you @CommodoreAmiga for the incredibly generous tip <3
You can reach me @Sam Sepiol#3396 on the Vertcoin Discord, here on reddit or @ [email protected]
submitted by ecorp-sam-sepiol to vertcoin [link] [comments]

How to setup a Bitcoin Node in Linux - A guide for ... How to install Bitcoin Core wallet in any Linux ... How To Install Linux to an External USB SSD or HDD - YouTube How to Install Bitcoin Core Wallet on Ubuntu 16 How to fully Install Linux Mint to USB Stick - YouTube

The Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System for Planet Earth. Bitcoin mining rigs and systems have come a long way since the beginning. The first Bitcoin miners made do with the tools they had at their disposal and set up various software to control the mining hardware in their rigs. While these make-shift solutions were better than nothing, they didn’t exactly work efficiently. Not only did that slow down the mining process, but it also made it ... Bitcoin Hardware – Linux Mint Cinnamon Operating System Install / Recovery Bootable USB Flash Thumb Drive for PCs and M… September 8, 2017 - by Bitcoin FYI Price: $19.99 Price/Availability; In general, USB drives are inexpensive and easy to find in stores or online. A Bitcoin private key (what you download onto your USB) is 256 bits, so you don’t need to buy a huge 64GB state of the art flash drive. An ordinary, cheap one will do. You likely won’t be waiting months for it to arrive, so you can get to storing your Bitcoin wallet any moment. Install Bitcoin Wallet At this stage we are ready to install Electrum bitcoin wallet. First install all prerequisites: $ sudo apt -y install python3-pip python3-pyqt5 Next, install the actual Electrum bitcoin wallet. Replace the Electrum package name with your downloaded version: $ sudo pip3 install Electrum-3.0.6.tar.gz Start Bitcoin Wallet

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How to setup a Bitcoin Node in Linux - A guide for ...

In this videos, I am going to show how to install Linux without CD or USB. To install any type of Linux base OS, No need any USB, CD, DVD. Just use internal ... How to fully Install Linux Mint to USB Stick. I hope this helps some people. FYI: This was done on an older, very limited, underpowered computer, so please e... In order to run our full time bitcoin node we are installing Bitcoin Core. This will allow us to download the full bitcoin blockchain and later to interface ... Today I will show you how to install Kali Linux on USB Flash Drive with Persistence mode. In this mode you will able to save all your data even across rebo... Use the VanityGen tool to generate a Bitcoin address that stands out from the others. Decide for yourself the first part of the address, and have an address ...

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